Wednesday, September 17, 2008

The Postcard Lantern As An Aid To Copying And Enlarging.

A postcard lantern or its equivalent, for a simple substitute is quite easily devised, will often prove of use to the photographer for special work. It may be of great assistance, for example, when one desires to make a copy or an enlarged negative from a print, while at the same time introducing modifications, or blocking out unwanted portions.
Direct enlarging with a postcard lantern is not new, having in fact been suggested by A. E. Swoyer, in the "American Annual of Photography" for 1914. That writer, however, regarded the projected image as an end, whereas in the present article it is simply a means to an end or intermediate stage, while the method adopted is entirely distinct.
It will be seen, by reference to fig. 1, that the postcard lantern consists of a body, A, in the front of which is fitted the objective, B, while at the back is a hinged door, C, with grooves to hold the print, or sometimes a sliding carrier. A good source of illumination is two 30 c. p. or SO c. p. metal filament bulbs, D and E. The inside of the body U whitened, and it will be noted that the ides nearest the lamps are at such an angle as to reflect the light on the print. Two small interposed screens, or some similar arrangement, prevent direct rays reaching the lens. Cowled chimneys are usually fitted over the lamps, and due provision made for ventilation.

Postcard latern The most important item is the lens, which should be of fairly large aperture, owing to the loss of light by reflection, and should have a flat field. Cheap postcard lanterns often have objectives with so round a field that the holder has to be curved to get uniform definition. Such a lens is, of course, quite unsuitable for copying or enlarging. Many of these objectives are not even achromatic, and, on the whole, a proper photographic lens is Bach to be preferred, even to the best of them. The lens must be capable of covering a plate at least as large as the print to be projected and the lantern should have sufficient focal adjustment or extension to render a fairly small picture possible when required.
There will be needed, in addition to the lantern, an easel of the type shown in fig. 2. This consists of a frame, A, containing a
Postcard latern type
wheat of plain glaze, B, and supported in a vertical position by a firm base and struts. To the frame A, is hinged a smaller frame, C, which, when closed and secured by a turn button, presses on the glass.
The print to be copied is inserted at the back of the lantern, and focused sharply to the desired size, on a sheet of tracing paper stretched taut between the two frames on the easel; or, if preferred, a piece of finely ground glass may be placed in the frame, A, instead of a plain piece, and the tracing paper dispensed with. If the second coarse is adopted, the ground aids) of the glass should be at the back of the easel.
The worker, standing or sitting behind the easel, now has it is power to modify the projected image considerably, by of pencil or stomp work on the ground glass or tracing and even the brash may be employed advantageously in cases. Since the image is a positive, there is no difficulty in exactly how the final result will appear. Cars, of course, have to be taken that the work matches the colour of the image.
The next step is to make a negative from the modified image, by setting up a camera, F (fig. 1), behind, and central to the easel, O, without moving or interfering with the lantern. Thus, the copy negative will contain all the introduced work as well as the essential characteristics of the original, and the result if all is well done, will be a considerable improvement. The negative may obviously be any required size, though preferably it should be smaller than the projected image, as this reduces the likelihood of grain showing.
It will be seen that this method affords a handy way of inserting a black background, by painting round the projected image with any suitable opaque; or of introducing accessories on an originally plain tight background; copying joined up prints an I combinations; adding skies to landscapes; and many other purposes.
One may also make enlarged modified negatives direct from prints, by working-op the projected image, as before described and then, having find covered the objective, placing a large plate in the frame behind the grand glass or tracing paper, the exposure being then given by uncovering the objective for an estimated time. In this case, the postcard lantern must evidently be light-trapped properly, which is not so necessary for copying with a camera; while a little extra space mast be left in the rebate of the easel frame to allow the insertion of the plate. Enlarging in this way softens the definition a little, and thus lends itself to artistic elects. There may also be an alight grain, bat with proper cars this should not be objectionable. Backed plates should invariably be used.
Since metal-filament lamps do not give out much heat, it in traits feasible, with an intelligent study of size and ventilation, to hint a simple wooden, lantern of the kind under discussion; or, with but a little adaptation, one or other of the various contrivances for ^Urging by reflected light without a condenser may be pressed into service.
To anticipate difficulties which may, perhaps, perplex some who are unfamiliar with postcard lanterns, it should be stated that the projected image is always laterally reversed. Viewed from the rear of the easel, however, there is no inversion, when explains why copying is done from the back, that also I fortunately the most convenient position.

Monday, September 15, 2008



In connection with the exhibition by members to be held at the Art Gallery, Black pool, on May 27, 1919, the committee desire that specimens submitted should be sent uncounted and not framed. The response from members is very satisfactory, but there is ample room for several more photographs. Entries will be in time if received by the hon. secretary up to Monday, April 28.


The next ordinary meeting will be held on Wednesday, April 23, at 7 p.m., at King's College Bacteriological Laboratories, 62, Chandos Street, W.C., when F. Martin Duncan, F.R.M.S., F.R.P.S., will lecture on "The Preservation and Preparation of Microscopic Objects for Photomicrography." Visitors are invited and cards of invitation may be obtained on application to the Hon. Sec., J. G. Bradbury, 1, Hogarth Hill, Finchley Road, Hendon, and N. W. A.


Describing the research now being undertaken by Professor H. B. Dixon in petrol substitutes, the "Times" mentions that an exceedingly interesting and ingenious device used by him is a camera of recording the "spread of the flame" in an explosion. It will take a hundred yards of film photograph a second, and as the film moves at right-angles to the motion of the flame and the lens reduces the image to one-twelfth of the original, it follows that the camera provides a means of analyzing a flame traveling at velocities up to 3,000 yards a second. This is an apparatus which Professor Dixon had perfected before undertaking the present investigations.


The death is announced of Madame Lallie Charles, for many years a well-known society photographer, having her studio and residence in the exclusive Mayfair thoroughfare of Curzon Street. There she conducted a business without any of the outdoor advertisement, in the shape of showcase or window, which evens the photographers of Bond Street, cannot bring them to forgo. Her customers were almost without exception women, and we believe her connection included not only a goodly proportion of London Society, but people of wealth and standing in South America. Some few years ago Madame Charles was the unsuccessful defendant in the lawsuit arising from the building of her Curzon Street studio, as the result of which, and also, so it is stated, of the war upon her business, she became financially embarrassed.


We are extremely sorry to have news from New York of the death of Mr. Alfred S. Corey, technical editor of the "Motion Picture News." Mr. Corey was an enthusiastic student of progress in the fields of optics, colour photography and colour cinematography, and during the last few years we have owed to him the opportunity of publishing descriptions of technical advances, particularly in colour cinematography, in the United States which had come under his personal notice. His interest in the technical side of optics and photography was shown by the very valuable resumes of the literature of these subjects which he offered to readers of his paper. It was technical information of a kind which, we may guess, found exceedingly few readers in the American cinematograph industry. Mr. Corey was a large buyer of books from England, and we are asked to remind any booksellers or publishers before whom this notice may come that his affairs are in the hands of Mr. Allison, of Allison and Haddaway, 235, Fifth Avenue, New York, who is taking steps to discharge any of his liabilities.



Novelist and home-made apparatus were to the fore last week and despite a gloomy forecast by the secretary, the evening proved complete success. The most welcome novelty, possibly indirectly due to the splendid action of the Liverpool duckers consisted of the contents of a bottle labelled "whisky." which, divided amongst thirty to forty members, was sufficient to alleviate the feeling of resentment born of recent privations.
Mr. F. Ackroyd showed a Bunsen burner converted into gas fire-lighter. This is connected to the gas supply with a length of the familiar lexis’s metallic tubing with rubber connectors. Rubber gradually perishes on exposure to light and air and if the connectors are covered with adhesive black compounded tape (as used for insulating electrical joins) their life will be greatly prolonged. The same idea had occurred to other member, and they congratulated Mr. Ackroyd on his cleverness. Mr. Harpur pointed out that this flexible tubing frequently leaks, which can be prevented by winding round the tape throughout its length without any material lens in flexibility. "Hunt's tape" was alluded to as bring excellent. Mr. Ackroyd next (bowed a beer-warmer, which be said served the purpose of making tea in office hours. This was believed, as be is the antithesis of the beer warmer type. He remarked that the utensil bad a large hole in the bottom, yet had never leaked. Several references being made to "George Washing ton." are explained that as the bole in the metal gradually formed it lied up with a calcareous deposit. He then passed round the beer warmer, and those who bandied it noticed with considerable dissatisfaction a loose carbonaceous deposit on its outer wall. At this point Dr. Knott mistaking the office boy for a towel, a disturbance arose.
The Rev. Le Warne was the next star turn, and it can be said with esurience if be is as successful in converting erring humanity to better things as he is in converting apparatus to weird uses he must be a sky pilot of pristine quality. A handy retouching desk was shown improvised oat of studio dark-slide, and, like an ex-sinner, capable of backsliding at abort notice. The President. Mr. J. Keane then demonstrated the "Flying Corps" developing tank, a well designed and solidly contracted apparatus. It permits of the insertion of a thermometer into the developer without admission of light, a really valuable feature. Dr. F. Knott produced several unbreakable glass measures, which were severely tested by members and came through unscathed. Being composed of glass under tension when they do go only fine dust remains. To those whose halite is engendering feeling of uncertainty regarding the position and number of external objects, they should powerfully appeal.
Mr. V. Jobbing showed a home-made camera "with all projections flush with the front," a feature believed to be unique; also a folding walking-stick tripod. This and the camera illustrated skill in design and craftsmanship of the highest order. The shutter lad its release placed in front and therefore was actuated by pressure towards the body, an ideal way for minimizing any tendency to shake at the moment of exposure. Many others materially contributed to the interest of the evening.


The seventh meeting of the session took place on Monday, April 7, Mr. Young in the chair. A letter was read from Mr. Massie, hon. secretary of the Edinburgh Photographic Society, intimating that the proposed to invite the 1990 Scottish Salon to Edinburgh had been discarded owing to the unsettled conditions. He thanked the society for the interest which the members had taken in the matter.
Mr. Young then read a letter from Mr. Sutherland, secretary of the Edinburgh College of Art. Intimating that the society’s request for this formation of a retouching class had now been granted, on condition that Mr. Young should undertake the tuition personally. This Mr. Young intimated his willingness to do. The class would start in the autumn, and would be held twice weekly, from seven to nine in this evening. Mr. Campbell Harper expressed the society's indebtedness to the president for the manner in which he had pulled this matter through.
Mr. Young then brought up the question of the apprentice. He said that it was now time for the society to formulate a scheme of some definite nature. Letter after letter was being published in the "British Journal" on this question, and, in fact, since he had mentioned the theme in his October address, hardly a week had passed without some contribution of this nature. The P. P.A. merely groped around the subject. The first thing which the photographer could do for his assistant Mr. Young continued, was to see that he received a proper training, and the beginning of that was an apprenticeship. We lived in different times, and the old conditions no longer held good; and we must have some definite schema of modified apprenticeship. In two years' time, he pointed out, every assistant under eighteen yean of age would be compelled to attend classes during business hours, and the newly- arranged retouching class would then become a day class. He added that he would be glad to hear the views of the members on the object, and suggested that a committee be appointed to formulate a scheme.
Mr. Johnston pointed out that the public opinion of photography as a profession was anything but a high one, and hence the difficulty of obtaining boys suitable for apprentices Mr. Young thought that classes of various kinds would greatly help to alter this situation. Mr. Rush brook felt that this was a matter for all the photographers in Britain. It was pointed out, however, that the onus of making a start would devolve on some small body, and, a lead once given, the idea would spread. The great difficulty which all photographers experienced in giving an apprentice a good know-ledge of all the branches was discussed, and it was honed that by the growth in the number of technical sissies the master photographer would be relieved of much personal tuition. A committee, consisting of Messrs. Rush brook, Campbell Harper, and Johnston, was then appointed to consider the whole question and to make a report.
Mr. Johnston then made his report on behalf of the Exhibition Committee. He gave facts and figures regarding the New Gallery, Shandwirk Place. Three weeks would be necessary for the exhibition for the purposes of hanging, and the other two for the exhibition. The probable coat for this, including advertising, would be about 60. It was felt that it would be more dignified if the exhibition were not a competitive one, but a competitive class for assistants might be arranged. Mr. Young said that he was anxious to see this exhibition representative of all classes of photography. It was decided to bring the matter up for further discussion.
A scheme of co-operative advertising was then placed before the members, and the details explained. Some nine firms have so far expressed their willingness to enter into this scheme, which promises to be of great benefit to the profession in Edinburgh.


At the annual general meeting on Monday, April 7, good progress was reported. The president, Mr. W. F. Slater, F.R.P.S., who has worked o hard for the benefit of the society for the past two years, it well-known figure in photographic circles, and it is with some considerable regret that the rules of the society only permit his occupying that position for the above-mentioned period. As demonstrator and lecturer his services have been much appreciated, and the members present expressed their appreciation. The secretary reported a very successful year's working, with an increase of 33 per cent, in membership. The hon. treasurer reported that the year's working showed a profit, which is gratifying, as the year had been commenced with a balance-sheet showing a slight loss.
The following officers were elected.-President, W. B. Ash mole; hon. secretary, Ernest W. Brooks; hon. treasurer, W. F. Slater, F.R.P.S., F.R.G.S.; hon. curator and librarian, L. J. Blake; hon. portfolio secretary, E. C. Perry; hon. excursion secretary, J. Pick-well; hon. lanterns, C. H. Manger; committee Messrs. Gideon Clark, H. Creighton Beckett. E. R. Bull, C. H. Oak den, Horace Wright. H. Richards, W. H. Howard, W. McEwen, E. W. Taylor, W. E. White, Arnold J. Burt, and E. Gorfin. The new syllabus is now ready, new members are required, and professional workers are invited to join, as this society already includes a good few members of the trade. A copy of the Handbook will be sent free upon application to E. W. Brooks, 4, Ferndale Road, S.W.4. The next meeting at the Central Library is fixed for 7.30 p.m., Wednesday, April 23, when Messrs. Kerotype, Limited, are giving a demonstration of their Kerotype paper.

Sunday, September 14, 2008



These specifications are obtainable, price 6d each t post free, from the Patent Office, 25, Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, London, W. C.
The dale in brackets is that of application in this country; or abroad, in the case of patents granted under the International Contention.


No. 123,892 (May 6, 1918). The invention consists in a lantern-slide, used for announcements, mounted so that it can be raised or lowered vertically in the cinematograph lantern stage. It is raised by a spring drum and lowered by pulling it down by hand. Robert George Elder, of 16, War ten Terrace, Heaton, Newcastle-on-Tyne.


No. 123,842 (March 12, 1918). The invention consists in a film having
words, or the letters thereof, progressively impressed near to the mouths of figures as a means of indicating a supposed dialogue. The words may be impressed photographically or from metal type. Samuel Albert Flower, 17, Newnham Road, Wood Green, London, N.


No. 113,156 (February 20, 1917). Two rectangular pieces of glass are selected of exactly the same size. On to one of the pieces of glass are placed three or more single pictures cut from waste cinematograph film. The film pictures, which are placed longitudinally on the glass and a little distance apart, are secured to the glass by narrow strips of black adhesive paper passed across their ends. The second piece of glass is then placed on the top of the pictures and the frame is bound securely together by strips of black gummed paper or tape, or other adhesive material, placed round the four edges.
The advantage claimed for the invention is that the slide thus formed is greatly superior to the present one, as the pictures used will be cuttings from the best quality films, showing excellent photography. Frederick Winton Perkins, 12, Norton Road, Letch worth Hertz.


No. 113,919 (September 19, 1917). The invention has for its object certain improvements in roll films whereby films of one size may be employed in different-sized cameras. In roll-film cameras it is usual to provide markings upon the backing paper for the film, such markings being spaced apart a distance equal to the length of film necessary for each exposure in a camera of a particular size, and showing the number of exposures that have been made. As distinguished from the foregoing, in accordance with the invention the backing for the film is marked in such a manner that a single spool of film of any particular width can be used in any camera made to take films of that width. The divisions on the backing paper are units and sub-divisions of units of length, and enable the user to ascertain the actual length of film used instead of the number of exposures of a predetermined size. The divisions are consecutively numbered and are of known dimensions, 1 centimeter for example. The half centimeter, quarter centimeter, or even smaller dimensions may also be indicated, but not necessarily identified.
The user of such a roll of film would be provided with a table giving names of various cameras in which the spool could be used, and giving against each camera the numbers which should appear at the usual opening or window in the back of the camera, as the successive exposures are made, allowance being made so that there is a division between the exposed portions, and overlapping of the photographs is avoided. Herbert Nimmo. 44, Kirby Street, Hatton Garden, London, E.C.I.


No. 11,933 (June 4, 1917). A sheet of paper or like flexible material previously sensitized in any known manner is coated with paint or washes of Venetian red, chrome yellow, or other suitable preparation which is impervious to light and is easily removable by washing or other similar process. The opaque coating forms protection to the sensitized surface and admits of the paper being handled openly, dispensing with the use of light-tight envelopes and the like, the treated paper being made up in single sheets or in books, packets or blocks containing the desired number of sheets.
For producing a print the prepared sheet or two or more superimposed sheets is supported behind the object to be radiographer, the print being thus taken directly on the paper or a like print on each of the superimposed papers or sheets, which is subsequently washed to remove the opaque coating and develop the print or prints.
By means of the invention, X-ray photographs can be produced with the utmost rapidity, whereby immediate inspection of the finished print is obtainable, this in many cases being of considerable value. George William Kilmer Crosland, New North Road, Huddersfield, and Thomas Pearson Kilmer Crosland, Fitzwilliam Street, Huddersfield.



An interesting demonstration of the qualities of carbon and Ozo-brome printing is now offered in the exhibition of photographs by these printing which is being held at the Camera Club, 17, John Street, Adelphi, London, W C. The prints are provided "by the Autotype Company, which now, as we gather from a circular, is the manufacturer and purveyor of materials for the Ozo-brome process. A very great range of photographic- effects shows the corresponding capacity of the carbon process to render in the fullest way the quality in negatives of most diverse subjects. Coming away from the rooms of the Camera Club, one mentally contrasts the beautifully romantic effects in a low key, such as many of these of Mr. Alex. Keighley, or to select an equally hue example, the "Stygian Shore" (No. 22) of Mr. Summons as we say, one contrasts these prints with the high-key studies of translucent ice which are shown by toe Australasian Antarctic expedition. Nothing, perhaps, could better exhibitions versatility of the carbon process, not only its capacity for tone rendering, but equally its choice of color appropriate to the subject. The exhibition contains some 4 portraiture by Craig Annan, Malcolm Abuthnot, and the Earl of Carparvon. The Ozo-brome process is represented by only a few examples, bat these show very charming landscape work by its inventor, Mr. Thomas Manly. The exhibition remains open from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. until April 30, and on April 24 a demonstration of carbon printing will be given at 8 p.m. by Mr. A. C. Braham. Tickets of admission to this fixture may be obtained on application to the Secretary of the club, or to the Autotype Company. 74. New Oxford Street. London, W. C. I.


An exhibition of photographs, presented under the title "War in the Air." by the Royal Air Force is now being held at the Grafton Galleries. New Bond Street, London, W. In interest and in the photographic quality of the coloured enlargements it is certainly the finest of the war photographs exhibitions which have been held. Who ever is responsible for "potting on" the exhibition it is evidently someone with a keen sense of the kind of subject which will interest the public. There must have been an immense amount of spade work done in making the selection from the enormous made of photography accumulated by the R.A.F. Here, however, we see for the fist time some of the achievements which have brought abort Great Britain's superiority in the air. Perhaps the chief of these, of which a number of photographs are to be found in different parts of the exhibition, is the now famous "hush" ship the "Furious." with its immense upper deck of size to receive a squadron of aero planes and still find roam for an airship or as. One of the photographs shows the operation of the tackle employed in raising a machine from it’s under deck hangar. There are some, striking pictures of the operations of the R.A.F. in Palestine in the shape of prints showing Turkish troops scattering in the hopeless attempt to escape the British airmen's bombs. Some photographs taken obliquely from the air of such well known places as Edinburgh and Trafalgar Square show the great usefulness of each photography for topographical purposes. A note in the catalogue mentions that the enlargements and their coloring again owe their quality to Means. Raines and Co., of Ealing. The exhibition remains open until the end of May, from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on week-days and 2.30 to 5JO on Sundays. The charge for admission is one shilling, the proceeds going to various charities connected with the

Tuesday, September 9, 2008

News and Notes: Bromoil Portraits, Silveblixe sketch pohteaits, White-margin masks.

Bromoil Portraits.

         While the exhibitions testify to the beautiful quality attainable in portraits made in Bromoil, professional photographers, with one or two exceptions, have ignored the process altogether. The technical experience necessary is obviously one reason for this, and therefore we may refer to the work in this field done by Mr. F. T. L 7 usher, of Durham House, Cumberland Road, St. Albans, who is a maker of bromoil prints and enlargements from photographers' negatives. We recently had an opportunity of seeing the fine quality which characterizes Mr. Usher's bromoil, and has its origin in the fact that the work is done out of a strong liking for the technique of the process and a desire to realize its possibilities in yielding results of artistic excellence. By customers able to appreciate the distinctive merits of the oil-pigment prints a high price is willingly paid, and therefore photographers who are in the position of being asked for such work will be glad to make a note of the source from which it may be obtained.


         In referring the other week to the special service for photographers now being offered by Mr. D Charles, 363, Garrett Lame, Earls field, S.W.18, we mentioned a specialty to which we may now refer as the result of examining a considerable number of examples of his work in this branch which Mr. Charles has sent us. These are "silver line" portraits in the sketch style, and with the necessary freehand work introduced photographically from a pencil drawing. The reproduction of the pencil effect is very well done and the rig-netting of the subject itself equally good. We have our own opinion as to the artistic merit of mingling a photographic image with pencil work, but the demand for such sketch embellishments of vignettes portraits is widespread, and therefore photographers anxious to show their customers something distinctive will be glad to avail themselves of Mr. Charles's services. He is a specialist in blocking-out and vignette work and the prints before us show the very successful application of these methods to exceedingly diverse subjects.


         The firm of Artiste, 5, Rue de Mont-faucon, Paris, VΙc., send us samples of the white-margin masks which they supply in a wide range of sizes for the making of prints in which an even white margin is desired. They are of two patterns, for plates and films respectively. The former consists of a strongly made cardboard frame having an aperture the size of the negative. Around the aperture is attached a mask of non-actinic paper which, when the negative is printed gives the required white margin. In the case of the masks for film negatives a hinged car board back is provided in order to facilitate the introduction of the film negative and the paper behind the mask. Those who have had much occasion to handle film negatives in making prints of this kind will appreciate this little device, which immensely simplifies the adjustment of the negative and paper. The whole mask, is of course, in tended to be placed in the printing frame or it may be used, as can that for glass negatives, on the feed of a box printer. The masks can also be obtained with oval apertures as well as with those of fancy outline. A good feature common to all of them is that they are made so as to utilize the maximum area of the negative. The sizes range from vest pocket to half-plate and the prices from 3d. to 7d. in the case of masks for glass negatives and from 6d. to Is. 3d. in the case of those for film. Other and larger sizes can be made on application.

Meetings of Societies, Commercial & Legal Intelligence.


         The meeting of Tuesday evening last was one of members only, held for the purpose of discussing the formation of a scientific group within the Society. The discussion was one to which reference is advisedly postponed until the official report of the proceedings in the Society's Journal.


         Dr. F. Knott, an old member of the club, though far from a veteran in years gave a lecture, entitled "Visual Psychology” which escaped improvement by the secretary, probably owing to doubt as to its significance. Others shared thin, for some cans prepared to hear a dissertation on the mystic and occult; some conjectured a ceresin lovely maiden beloved by Cupid might receive attention; whilst the majority preferred to "wait and see," and, when last week they saw found seeing wee not necessarily believing. As a matter of fact, Mr. Faster Brigham was down for the date, hut remained up at Scarborough However, and he sent such a nice letter of apology, with to "unforeseen circumstance" and the "daffodil disease," all forgave his absence.
         Dr. Knott's paper consisted of two parts the psychology of form and that of colour. It took over an hour to deliver, read at express sped but with excellent articulation. The subject was treated in a yet in a war readily to be understood. The few extracts selected for report give no idea of its scope.
         Psychology he said is a large subject, and the visual branch by no means it’s smallest. It consists of her scientific study of the nature and course of experience. We know a thing, and sometimes we know that we know a thing, but more rarely do we know that we know that we know a thing (tie nothing could be plainer). Classification is important. There are many kinds of sensations, and we are equipped with receivers for all the chief kinds of physical energy, except electricity. Light is especially interesting to photographers as predominantly visual creatures. The eye may he considered as a little camera, with its lens, more or less perfect, capable of being focused and stopped down, with Use retina, acting as o focusing screen the image being upside down, which is reverted by the brain.
         The chief faults of the eye correspond with those from which lenses suffer spherical aberration and astigmatism being present, amongst others. Optical lenses are made of transparent glass, but the media of the human eyes ore slightly turbid, causing "irradiation," which has the same subjective effect on objects as actual turbidity has on objective things. The angle of view of the two eyes is enormous, no lam than 180 deg. in the horizontal meridian and 120 deg. in the vertical, the images received being minatory finished in the centre, and only roughly sketched at she borders.
         There is one spot of extreme sensitiveness in the retina, and another of absolute blindness at die attachment of the optic nerve; but, as in binocular vision the two blind spots never comedies, the defect is unnoticed; also, they almost invariably affect those parts of the field to which, at the moment, attention is not directed. The blind spot is so large that it might prevent our seeing eleven full moons placed in a row. (It transpired in the discussion that this phenomenon has no connection with the two moons seen side by side tinder certain conditions.)
         All are colour blind, the outermost retinal zone being absolutely blind to colour: then come intermediate zones with partial colour vision, and, finally, the innermost with complete colour perception. The lecturer then parsed on to an exhaustive consideration of (binocular vision, perspective, and the theory of colour and its relation to vision. He also showed a large number of highly interesting optical illusions dealing with form, magnitudes, and colour. Considerations of time and space preclude these being touched upon. It should, however, be mentioned that Mr. Sellors alleged that he saw quite correctly many things which correctly he should have seen incorrectly typical of the secretary's perversity.
         In the discussion a point raised 'by Mr. Reynolds resulted in a pretty flare-up between him and Mr. Purkis, the "office boy" -energetically tanning (.lie flames, only to find him enveloped. If any reader with a kind heart and sufficient knowledge can throw any light on the points in dispute, it may avert a repetition of the peculiar triangular duel described by Marryat. The facts are as follows: A cardboard disc, painted (blue and yellow, on being revolved, appeared white. An assumption was then made that the same colors be applied in minute dots in juxtaposition on a piece of white cardboard, when it was agreed that, viewed from a distance, a green emotion could be received. Therefore, why a white sensation in the first place and a green one in the second? About an hour after a hearty vote of thanks had been accorded the doctor for an evening of unusual interest the disputants separated. Mr. Purkis departed resolved to think the matter out; the office boy left with an equally form resolve in an opposite direction, and Mr. Reynolds and his gentle, compassionate smile melted into the night a smile, by the way, which simply touts for tremble.


         Association. - The usual monthly meeting of the above Association was held in Stephen-son's Cafe, Sheffield, on April 2. There was a good attendance of members, and one new member was enrolled. The evening was occupied in a general discussion on the following subjects: Minimum prices for postcards, the assistant question, keeping a register of employees open to engagement, the training of disabled men as assistants, etc. The secretary was instructed to ascertain full particulars of the Government's proposition for the training of demobilized men .with a view to commencing art business as photographers. It was decided to make an effort to induce district photographers to become members of the Association. A very pleasant evening .was spent, and members seemed to take more interest in the future of the Association than has been apparent for some time. The subject for discussion at the next meeting is, "The Best Artificial Lighting for Studio Portraiture." The Association is open for was members. The hon. secretary's address is 137, Pinatone Street, Sheffield. Manufacturers are invited to demonstrate new goods, apparatus, or novelties at any of the Association's meetings.


         At the London Bankruptcy Court on Friday last, before Mr. Registrar Franck, the public examination was appointed to be held of Harold Aylmer Jones, photographer 7 Gloucester Terrace, Kensington, W., formerly of 30, Hill Street. Richmond, who alleged his failure to have been caused through loss on the business at 7, Gloucester Terrace and loss of business through domestic differences with his wife, who had obtained judgment him for arrears of an allowance under an Order of the Court case being called on for hearing, Mr. F. T. Garton, who attended as Official Receiver, said the debtor had given the Court a good deal of trouble. He had written to say that he had filed the best statement of affairs it was possible for him to make out and he asked for an adjournment on the ground of ill-health, but he had not fortified his application with a medical certificate.
         The statement of affairs was very incomplete, and the debtor had only attended once upon the bankruptcy officials since he was previously before the Court; therefore, he asked that the examination might be adjourned sine die. When the debtor appeared at the Court on the last occasion he certainly looked unwell, but as he was not present on this occasion he thought the examination could be adjourned sine die.
         The Registrar granted the application upon the ground that debtor had not given a reasonable excuse for his absence.

The British Photographic Research Association.

         The following communication has been issued by the Council:-
          The urgent necessity for the future development of British industry on a more scientific basis than hitherto has been recognized by the Government, who have placed a million sterling at the disposal of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research for the purpose of encouraging research and its application to the development of British industries. The Advisory Council for Industrial and Scientific Research, after consultation with manufacturers and scientists, recommended that grants should be expended on a co-operative basis in the form of liberal contributions by the department towards the funds raised voluntarily by associations of manufacturers, established for the purpose of research. By this method the systematic development of research and its application to industry is carried out under the direct control of the industries themselves, and the co-operation of the firms in one industry will enable research work to be undertaken which could not have been dealt with by an individual firm.
          The manufacturers of photographic materials and apparatus were the first to form an association to avail themselves of the scheme, and in May, 1918, the British Photographic Research Association was formally incorporated. Dr. R. E. Slade has been appointed director of research, and laboratories have been obtained for the time being at University College, London. These laboratories are under the control of the director of research and are distinct from the teaching laboratories.
          The Association will carry out research in photography, photochemistry and other related subjects, with a view to the' general increase of knowledge of these subjects, improving methods of manufacturing photographic materials and discovering new photographic processes.
          It is not the intention of the Association to attempt to standardize throughout the manufacturing methods of the photographic industry. Manufacturers will always insist on determining for themselves the lines on which their Business shall develop. It is the aim of the Association, by applying scientific methods, to obtain knowledge which will be of the widest application to the industry, which may be utilized by each manufacturer for the development of his own particular processes.
          Pure research into the scientific basis of photography, and into related subjects, such as colloidal chemistry and photo-chemistry, will be carried out for the increase of knowledge, without necessarily any immediate application of the results to manufacturing processes. These researches should open up new and important fields of applied research, and advantage will immediately be taken of any results of research which appear likely to lead to the progress of the photographic industry.
          Among pure researches which are contemplated are the following: Investigations into the fundamental properties of silver halides, and of the effects of various substances on these properties.
          Investigations into the physical and chemical properties of gelatine and other similar colloids.
          Investigations of a wide range of photo-chemical reactions.
          Investigations into colloidal chemistry.
          Investigations into the theory of processes of colour photography.
         Publication of the results of pure research will be made from time to time in accordance with the rules of the Association.
          Applied research will be undertaken to improve products now being manufactured, to improve methods of manufacture, and to introduce new photographic processes. These researches may be undertaken with a view to improving some process which is well known to require improvement or to overcome some difficulty which has arisen in manufacture, or they may be undertaken when some advance in pure science has been made which it seems possible to apply to photography.
          Among the subjects of applied research will be the following :
          Investigation of esensitizing and reducing agents on sensitive materials, with particular reference to insensitive spots in plates and papers, and impurities in the raw materials used.
          Studies of the properties of various samples of gelatine with a view to arriving at the causes of the effects they produce and ultimately to obtain a standardization and improvement of the product.

Lithographic Transfers From Bromide Prints.

         The Bromoil process has for several years had an important application in the lithographic trades as a means of readily making enlarged or reduced productions of line or "stipple" copies. The method also lends itself to the production of coarse-grained halftone lithographs. In this process a negative is made from the original line or tone drawing, or from an existing reproduction.
From this a bromide print is made of the size required, which is subsequently treated by a modified Bromoil process so as to become transformed into a lithographic transfer.
         Details are given below of a method which has been produced after numerous experiments. These were undertaken by the writer with a view to obtain general reliability and ease in results.

Character of the Negative.

         The negative may be made either on a dry plate or by the wet collodion process. It must be quite sharp. Line negatives should be made with a fairly large stop, or there will be a slight diffusion of detail in the finer lines. This is due to the fact that the anastigmats lenses generally in use are designed primarily to work at large apertures. F /16 to //22 are about the correct stop to use.
         Half-tone negatives must have the dot formation well joined in the high-lights. The particular screen to use for half-tone work must be calculated. For example, if the print from the negative is to be enlarged two diameters and 75 lines per inch grain is required; the negative must be made with a 150-line screen.

Making the Print.

         The ordinary copying camera may be used for making the print, the negative being rigged up a foot or so in front of the copy board, which is covered with white paper, so as to reflect light through the negative. A better way, when work is to be done in quantities, is to use an enlarging lantern. Whichever method is adopted, care must be taken to focus quite sharp, and again to use a fairly large stop.
         The most suitable developer is the regular smidol or diamido-phenol formula, using plenty of bromide. The fixing bath must consist of plain hypo and water, and nothing more. Exposure should be just long enough to produce a full strength deposit in the finest lines. Development should be full. After fixing the print it should be washed for not less than ten minutes, and then dried.

Making the Transfer.

The print, when dry, is ready for bleaching. This should be done by means of the following bath :

A. Copper bichloride .............. 60 grs. 5 gms

Ammonium chloride ......... 240 grs. 20 gms

Hydrochloric acid, about ... 20 drops 2c.c.s

Water………………………l0 ozs 400 c.c.s.

B. Sodium bichromate…….12 grs. 1 gms

Water………………………2½ ozs. 100c.c.s

         For use take 2 ozs.(50 c.c.s.) A., ¼ ozs. (6c.c.s) B., and 4 ozs. (100 c.c.s.) water.
         The print should be fully bleached in about two minutes. Occasionally a strong print will fail to beach right out. The partly bleached portions will, however, take the ink quite well. After bleaching the print is washed for not less than 4 minutes in running water.
         While the print is washing the inking slab should be get ready. Take a little re-transfer ink on the end of a palette knife and rub it cut on an old litho stone, or other suitable slab, thinning it down with xylel or benzole. Turpentine is unsuitable for this process.
          The washed print is now blotted off, and laid on a sheet of zinc or glass. Take a fairly tough letterpress roller, or better a rubber-covered roller, and distribute the ink all over the inking slab, diluting with xylol until the roller has a tendency to skid over the surface of the slab. Now roll up the print with the roller in this condition. At first the print assumes a uniform grey tinge, and then as the xylol evaporates the stiffening ink leaves the whites and adheres more and more to the bleached parts. In a few seconds the maximum effect is reached and the rolling stopped.
         The print should at this stage appear full of detail and of a grayish-black colour. There may be a very thin film of ink left upon the whites. In order to remove this, take a piece of thoroughly wet cotton wool and rub lightly over the print until clean. The transfer is then ready for the lithographer.

Weak Prints.

         Sometimes a print is too weak in character for the bleaching solution to act with full effect. In this case it will be found that fine details do not ink up. Such a print may be saved by a re-development operation, as follows: Clean all ink from the surface with a piece of cotton wool moistened with xylol, and then put it in an ordinary smidol developer, such as was used to make the print originally. It quickly blackens, and should be washed for four or five minutes, when it may be re-bleached in the Bromoil bleacher. No fixing is necessary before re-bleaching. The print will be found to have received an extra dose of hardening action, and will usually ink up well.
          Inking up of the transfer by means of the Bromoil brush is favored by some workers. It is useful at times for the purpose of bringing out portions of a print which may lack detail. In order to use a Bromoil brush some re-transfer ink must be mixed with a mere trace of boiled linseed oil and the tip of the brush charged with this, no xylol being used. The charged brush is dabbed upon the required parts of the print until sufficient ink has been taken up, and the inevitable dirtiness of the whites removed with wet cotton wool. The print can 'be persuaded to take up more and more ink by adding a greater proportion of boiled oil. As a rule, however, attempts at faking of print* are not to be recommended.'

General Considerations.

         Almost any grade of bromide paper can be used for bromoil transfers. The most suitable is a matt smooth paper, which is coated on a substantial base. It is well to be sure that the emulsion has a fine grain. Glossy paper gives bright-looking prints, which, however, the lithographer finds difficulty in transferring to stone or plate, owing to the extremely high relief.
          Transfers may be re-inked and re-used a number of times, the limit being governed by the toughness of the paper base.
          Some grades of paper have a tendency for the gelatine coating to strip off during inking. This tendency may be minimized by using the bleacher given above. Lack of strength hitherto has been apparently, due to the softening of the baryts base on which the emulsion has been coated. By substituting ammonium chloride for the more usual sodium salt this defect is overcome. The object of hydrochloric acid in this formula is to enable ordinary tap water to be used. The acid neutralizes any hardness in the water. Sodium bichromate was found to be the most reliable chromic salt to use.

Stretching of Transfers.

         Sometimes it is important that the impression must be of exact size. In such cases the bromoil transfer process hitherto has been hardly feasible, owing to the tendency for the paper base to stretch unevenly. A bromide paper, known as Kerotype, has recently been placed on the market, which to a large extent overcomes this defect. It is a stripping paper i.e., the prints are first made on a bromide emulsion which has been coated on an impermeable base. These prints are then soaked in a mixture of spirit and water, and the emulsion is transferred by means of a gelatine solution to a suitable support, such as celluloid.


Practicus In The Studio: Portable Studios.

         Рarticles of this series, in which the aim of the writer is to communicate items of a long experience in studio portraiture, have appeared weekly since the beginning of the present year. It is not thought possible to continue the series to the length of that by the same writer which ran through the "British Journal" some years ago, but if any reader among the younger generation of photographers, and particularly those engaged as assistants, has a particular subject which might be dealt with, his or her suggestion will be welcomed. The subjects of the previous articles of the series have been as follows:


         The term "portable" has a wide range of meaning when applied to a photographic studio. It may mean a caravan on wheels, a wooden building which can easily be taken to pieces and erected elsewhere, a specially designed tent, or even a temporary shelter for the sitter and background, the camera and operator being in the open.
         Studios in the first category that is to say, of the caravan type are now not as common as they used to be in the early collodion days, when many villages, and even small towns, had no photographer domiciled in them. There are, I believe, some which travel along with roundabouts, wild beasts, and fat ladies from fair to fair throughout the country, but I have not seen one for a good many years. Some of them were quite elaborate affairs, fitted up not only for glass positive and ferrotype work, but for printing on albumenized paper, the work often comparing favorably with that issued by many fixed studios. It may puzzle those who have never seen one to imagine how sufficient space was obtained, but this was easily done by adopting a telescopic form of construction, an inner body sliding out and being supported upon trestles.
         The form which will probably be of most interest to the majority of my readers is not a studio that is here to-day and gene to-morrow, 'but one which is intended to remain in one place for months, if not for years, but which can, if needed, be removed and re-erected at small cost, and by unskilled labour. Such studios are usually made entirely of wood and glass, and their portability is due to the fact that there is no general framework, but that the whole is built up in panels, which are fastened together with ordinary iron bolts and nuts. I will endeavor to give some idea of their construction, which is quite simple and well within the powers of the village carpenter, or even of an amateur who has some idea of wood working. The first thing to be decided upon is the size and, this being done, a drawing should be made and the size of the panels settled. It is necessary to be very careful in constructing these that they should be exactly the size that they are supposed to be, or there will be a lot of unnecessary work when it comes to fitting together. The design is usually the ridge-roof one, somewhat after the pattern of Noah's ark without the barge. For a studio 20 x 12 by 8 ft. (to the eaves) and 11 ft. to the ridge the following divisions will be convenient: - Each end is in two sections 6 ft. wide, one side being 8 ft. long and the other 11 ft. long. The two pairs of panels are exactly alike, exactly that one will probably hare the door frame fitted into it. It must not be forgotten to the frames on the proper sides when nailing on the boarding, or they will hare to be remade. I mention this because I have known three right-hand sections and one left-hand made, instead of two of each. The sides are made in four sections, each 5 ft. wide and 8. ft. high,. Six of these are entirely covered with wood, and two have a crow-bar, say, 4 ft. up. Below this, wood is nailed on; above are sash-bars for the side- light. The roof calls also for sax wooden panels and two which are frames only, fitted with sash-ban for the top light. These are all 5 ft. wide an I about 7 ft. long, so as to give a slight overhang at the eaves. The edges which met at the ridge should be beveled so as to give a good bearing. For a studio of this size the frames of the panels should be made of 4 x 3 deal and the boarding should be good yellow I matching. The frames may be mortised if the extra labour is not objected to, but "haired" joints answer quite wall, as the boarding has to do its part in keeping the panels square; good cut nails should be used for fastening. The side and end panels should each have a crossbar half-way up, as not only does this stiffen the construction, but it keeps the boarding from warping. In all the panels the framing comes inside the studio, and the panels are fastened together by drilling holes in which the bolts fit well, and without shake in the frames, so that, when laid side by side, they are drawn closely together. In the end sections the bolts run through the boarding as well as the frame, and are tightened up in the sane way as the side joints. It is perhaps hardly necessary to say that the woodwork should all be erected before the glass is put in the sashes, and that, in raw of removal, the glass should be taken out before anything else is done.
         Having made all our panels, we can assemble them. First the two ends are pat together, and then the sides joined up to their full length. The bark should next be joined to the ends, then the front fixed in, and finally Ike roof sections put up in pairs and screwed through on to the tops of the frames. Although not always done, it is a good plan to put one or more tie rods across at the level of the eaves to prevent any outward thrust. These should be ¾ in. to 1 in. in diameter, threaded at the ends with a good large nut put on both sides of the top of the side frames through which the rod goes.
         The flooring is made in panels the width of the studio, and drops upon the lower part of the frame. There should be same arrangement of joists or brick piers to prevent vibration and sagging.
The roof will require a waterproof covering. This may corrugate or the asphalt roofing material known as Ruberoid or if obtainable, Uralits which is fireproof may be used. This is a sort of asbestos and platter composition, and would keep (fee studio cooler than iron. It has the merits of not rusting and requiring no paint.
         A building erected in the above way will not keep in condition long if placed directly upon the ground; therefore, some foundation which will keep the lower part dry moat be provided. For a reason to be presently given this should be of a temporary character, and on which we found very successful was a row of loose bricks all round, the exact sue of the studio with two rows at equal distances running from end to end inside. Upon these bricks rested low long deal. 20 ft long and 3x9 section; the sides of die studio stood upon this, awl there was sufficient apace between the bricks for sir to circulate freely below A studio so erected was taken down, after nine years, and was found to be quite sound, as were also the long timbers.
         If one is building upon another person's land it is necessary to be very careful to do nothing that will give the landlord a claim to the building. If a studio or greenhouse is erected upon a brick foundation which forms an integral part of it, the whole at once comes under the control of the landlord, and the tenant cannot legally remove it. It has been held in the case of a lean-to greenhouse that the driving of iron hold- fasts into the wall of a dwelling-house to secure part of the framework removed the structure from the category of “tenant's fixtures," and made it a part of the freehold.
         The foregoing description is necessarily of a sketchy nature, but I shall be pleased to fill in any details in the "Answers to Correspondents" column in case of need.
         Tent studios are not much in favour in this country as there is no possibility of using glass as part of the covering, and there is no waterproof material which will retain its whiteness for any appreciable period. Celluloid is, of course, out of the question, on account of its cost and inflammability. The most elaborate tent studio I have seen was one sold by the Stereoscopic Company a quarter of a century ago. It consisted of a wooden skeleton of the ordinary ridge-roof form. The parts usually solid in a permanent studio were covered with tightly stretched sail canvas; the top and side lights were without any permanent covering, and were fitted with dark and light roller blinds of the usual type. This wan necessarily a rather costly affair and a much simpler arrangement could be constructed with an ordinary small marquee as a basis. If an opening were cut in a suitable position and a light wooden frame, or frames, fitted with wires and festoon blinds put in, quite a useful studio could be made. Some years ago a woven wire roofing the meshes being filled with a transparent varnish, was placed upon the market; it was tried for studio lighting, but being rather yellow, caused the exposures to be too long. Now that plates are three times as fast it might be worth trying it again, if it is still made. I have often thought that a serviceable studio might be made upon what is known as the turned principle that is to say a comparatively short square compartment for the sitter and background and a small tunnel or passage without light for the camera and operator, idea could be worked out in the form of a tent, and would have the great advantage of being economical of material and presenting the minimum area to wind pressure It would not be difficult to arrange such a studio so that an ordinary- shower need not interrupt work.
         So-called "lawn" studios are merely devices for balding a background and curtains for cutting off the worst of the top and side light. Houghton's used to list a very neat arrangement of this type. It is, however, very easy to improvise something of the sort with four tent-poles and cords, a background and some lengths of light and dark materials for curtains. All that has to be done is to fix the four poles at the corners of an 8 ft., or smaller, square, to run a cord round the tops, steady the whole with the ordinary ropes and pegs, and hang the background on whichever side suits the light. The lengths of material are hung over the top cord to serve as studio curtains. One friend of mine had four clothes post sockets fixed in his garden at the proper distances for a studio of this sort, and could drop the posts in rig up the curtains, and get to work in less than ten minutes.


The Trade In German Cameras.

         Since the appearance of our note in the "British Journal" of March 28 last this unpleasant subject of the trade which is now going on in German cameras has cropped up in one way or another somewhat freely in the daily Press. For example, we have noticed two German cameras advertised for sale in the "Personal" column of the "Times" Both, were described as new, and in one case the complete set, comprising a focal-plane camera of a type little sold in this country before the war, a well-known objective, and three double dark-slides, was offered at 24. Curiously enough, a correspondent drew our attention to a new German camera at thing same price being displayed in a London dealer’s shop window. It is therefore evident that the trade is still going on and is passing, not merely through the channels of the lay Press, but also of the dealer’s establishments.
         A paragraph in the "Daily News" takes us to the source of this illicit trade. The writer quotes from a circular which, he states, is being distributed in the streets of Cologne. On the outside page is printed in big type, "Now's your chance. You will never get a good German camera as cheap again." On the inside pages of the circular are stated the name and address of the firm of dealers and the names of the photographic makers the four best known in Germany whose goods are obtain able. A characteristic touch is provided by the announcement in the largest type, "English spoken."
         But the most remarkable contribution to this matter which we have met in the lay Press is contained in the London letter of the "Westminster Gazette" of April 2. The writer makes the most extraordinary deductions from, the fact that a camera can now be bought in Cologne for about 6, which in pre-war times would have cost 13. According to him, the subsequent appearance of these cheaply bought cameras on the English market seriously disturbs the second-hand dealers here from the fear of the value of German-made lenses and cameras held by them being depreciated. If the writer had taken the trouble to find out he would have discovered that the volume of trade which has arisen since the armistice is altogether too insignificant to have the result he suggests. Certainly the dealers are disturbed-disturbed by the fact that the necessity of taking steps to put a stop to this trading with the energy should be imposed upon them as a consequence of official apathy in taking the matter in hand. The Photographic Dealers' Association in a letter addressed to the ''Westminster Gazette" by the President, Mr. James A. Sinclair, and appearing in the issue of the 10th inst., points out that in most instances dealers are refusing to deal in apparatus which has been made since the war commenced, and which) is now reaching this country through the purchases of soldiers in the army of occupation, although the purchase and re-sale of these new cameras would be very profitable to them. But the writer in the "Westminster" is apparently obsessed with the ideas that by some means or other photographic dealers have during the war maintained the prices of second-hand German-made cameras at a highly profitable level, and is thus led to impute their desire to exclude the new instruments merely to motives of self interest It would be interesting to "know along what line of reasoning the writer eliminates the public from this conclusion. Let the dealer price his second-hand German cameras as high as he liken, or, for that matter, as low as he liken, they would stay on his shelves unless the public bought them. In matters of tariff reform writers in the "Westminster" are eager to lay emphasis on the laws of supply and demand on which obviously the sale of the goods in question solely depends. When war broke out there must have been very considerable stocks of German cameras distributed throughout the second-hand trade. Clearly no stigma could attach to dealing in them, and if as we have said; the public has been willing to pay highly for them the dealers have been entitled to profit. The writer in the "Westminster Gazette" now suggests that dealers "should have done with this trade" in order that they may avoid suspicion of selling new German cameras now coming into the country. Surely a drastic enough remedy for a state of things which ha been none of the speaking of dealers in this country.
         The only remedy for the present difficult v is that the bringing of these goods into the count should be prohibited. The leading dealers have no doubt set their faces against trading in the goods, but unless all are solidly in this policy there will obviously be the inducement: to every one of them to take part in it from the knowledge that if he does not purchase the goods some- body else will. Moreover, there are the channels of the auction room and advertisement in the lay Press. We believe that representations have been made to the Ministers concerned, but very little may be expected from those quarters. It may, therefore, be hoped that the whole influence of the Photographic Dealers' Association will be thrown on the side of reducing the market for these cameras. Probably the most effective means of this kind would be the publication of a list of dealers refusing to purchase any cameras which they have reasonable ground for assuming to be of recent importation. A restriction of market would have its reacting effect upon prices, and would thus apply the most effective discouragement to the bringing of these goods to London for sale.
         In conclusion, while we are upon the subject, we should not refrain from reference to a message by Renter's Special Service from Cologne which appeared in the ''Daily Telegraph" of March 31 last. Dealing with the wider opening of the door to trade between Germany and the occupied zone, and discussing also the resumption of trading relations between Germany and Great Britain as a means of Germany paying her share of war expenses, the writer singles out "camera parts, lenses, etc.," as goods which England "is ready enough to receive." It would be interesting to know what grounds Reuter's correspondent has for making a statement which every evidence goes to show is the very antithesis of the facts.

EX CATHEDRA: Organic Intensifiers; The Donalty of Negative; Glass for the Studio; Defects in Sketch.

Organic Intensifiers.

         Many as are the processes which have been evolved by the ingenuity of the chemical experimenter, it cannot be said that we yet have a perfect process of intensification, speedy in use, performed in one operation, and thus capable of being stopped at the required stage and permanent in the results Hitherto, with one exception, all intensifies have been based upon the use of mineral or inorganic compounds, such as the metallic salts which exert an oxidizing action upon the silver deposit, and thus, in one way or another, allow of an increase of density. The exception to which we refer the single example of an organic intensifier is that invented some eight or nine years ago by MM. Lumiere, in which the oxidizing agent is a quinone compound. The departure thus made into the infinitely wide field of organic chemistry is one which has not been followed, although there is every probability that among the many compounds and series of compounds of carbon which exist there are some in which the two properties of oxidizing the silver image and of adding density when so doing are united. Now that the demands of photography, in the matter of developers, are becoming familiar to makers of organic products and intermediates in this country it may happen that the sister process of intensification may come in for a share of attention, even though the commercial rewards may be small in comparison with those yielded by a developer.

The Donalty of Negative Fog.

         The old idea that a negative must have a certain amount of clear glass is held by few printers now, but it is an undoubted fact that with a negative that is at all inclined to be on the thin side a very slight amount of fog reduces the printing value in a marked degree. It also gives a false impression of the real contrast present and prevents proper judgment of exposure when bromide or other development papers are used. It is an instructive experiment to reduce with ferricyanide and hypo one half of a foggy negative until the shadows are fairly clear, when it will usually be found that although the image, plus fog, appears fairly vigorous, yet, minus fog, it is really quite weak. It is therefore evident, when a negative cloud over in development more than it should do, that the development should be prolonged until considerable density is obtained; then when the fog is removed what is practically a normal negative will be left. If any one suffers from this class of negative, it is advisable that all precautions should be taken to avoid all possible causes of veiling. A very common one is diffused light in the camera; this may be through insufficient shading of the lens, to a dusty or cloudy condition of the glasses, or even to reflection from imperfect blacking of the bellows or woodwork. It is curious fact that in the wet collodion era, when there was much lees liability to fogging, photographers was very careful as to shading the lens with long hoods, cones, or canopies, while now we may find people using rapid anastigmats with half-inch hoods or none at all, and this with ultra-rapid plates. The point should receive especial attention at the hands of those who go in for «fancy’ lighting, with the lens pointing more or less directly to the light. With dirty lenses the remedy is obvious: a little alcohol and a soft rag are all that is needed, although a coating of dead black or even black velvet inside the lens tube, is a valuable addition, while treatment with a really dead blacking such as nitrogen on the bellows and framework should complete the cure. If the fogging occurs in the camera the edges of the plate where protected by the rebate should be clear, otherwise the cause must be sought in the dark-room. Coloured fabrics fade and some red glasses permit a considerable proportion of blue light to pass through. It is worth taking a little trouble in tracing the cause of fog in order to secure clean, easily printed negatives.

Glass for the Studio.

         A correspondent recently asked whether the use of rolled or ground glass for glazing the studio would obviate the necessity for white blinds or curtains in addition to dark ones. In our opinion, in an at all well-lighted position it would not do so, as although either kind would prevent the direct glare which sometimes comes through clear glass, there would, be no effective control of the light. There is, however, much to be said in favour of what is generally called "rolled plate" for both roof and sidelights. For one thing, it effectually excludes all view from the outside, even when using artificial light, while another advantage is that the light is more evenly distributed about the studio, with the result that the shadows are less intense, and the exposures shortened in spite of a certain proportion of the light being absorbed. If the glass is neglected dust and dirt will accumulate in the ribs and cause considerable waste of light, but an occasional wash with soap and water, applied with a soft brush, will remedy this. Of ground glass we cannot speak so well. It certainly diffuses the light and is, therefore, useful where there are outside obstructions, for it is well known that a side light of ground glass will give better illumination if there is a wall near than clear glass On the other hand, it rapidly gets yellow in a smoky atmosphere, and it is then more difficult to clean than the rolled plate. Moreover, as it diffuses the light more than rolled or clear glass, it is more difficult to get decided effects in lighting with it.

Defects in Sketch Portraits.

         Few photographers pay sufficient attention to the lighting of the sitter when producing negatives for sketch portraiture and many examples that we have seen in professional show-cases point to negligence in this respect The charm of a good sketch portrait, in our opinion, lies in its fine tonal quality and delicacy, while if an over-harsh or too unequal lighting is arranged a very inferior effect is obtained. One of the best sketch portraits that we have seen was made with a decidedly flat lighting, but one that, at the same time, by the aid of first-class photography, was a delightful result of tonal quality and colour suggestiveness. While on the subject a word may be added with reference to the sitter’s costume. In the case of feminine sitters the sketch portrait should always be in a high key and if possible the receptionist should advise light clothing free from any trace of dark. We recently saw a bust sketch portrait of a feminine sitter in a high key that was absolutely ruined from the artistic point of view by the inclusion of a dark tie. The removal of this should have been: tactfully suggested by the photographer. Many child -portrait sketch effects in a high key are considerably reduced in artistic value through a dark-coloured hair ribbon, and: we have before us a delightful full-length sketch portrait of a youthful sitter in a light dress completely spoilt by reason of the fact that the sitter is wearing dark socks, or, perhaps, those of a colour that photographed too dark, if a non-earthy plate was employed. The above are some points that have a real bearing upon success and' should be noted by all sketch portrait workers.

Monday, September 8, 2008

Practicus In The Studio: Home Portraiture.

Work which conies frequently to some photographers and only at long intervals to others are that of taking portraits at the sitter's own homo. Some firms specialize in it to the extent of sending operators long distances, poaching upon the territory of the local man. There is no more remunerative class of work than this if properly managed, and if the prints are of good quality, yet many photographers fight shy of it, and these, it is to be feared, are generally those who bungle the job. With regard to terms, these are largely governed by local conditions and the prices obtained at any particular studio, so that I will do no more than suggest that no additional fee be charged for "going out." One does not make a charge for going out. to take a house, a horse, or a dog, and there its therefore no justification for making a charge if the model happens to 'be a human being. I recommend, however, that an order for a decent amount be secured, say, at least for a dozen of the highest class of cabinets, as a condition of the special visit. The fact that no additional charge is made will often induce a delicate or infirm person to be taken at once, instead of postponing the matter on account of the weather or other cause, with the possible result of the order being lost through death or the action of a more enterprising artist. It is an excellent thing, from point of view, to secure the entree to as many good possible, for, with a little tact, it is easy to obtain views of the home interior and exterior, and often horses, dogs, and other domestic pets.
To make home portraiture easy and successful the outfit should be carefully chosen. The old way was to pat the studio remora and stand in a cab and to trust to finding a dark-room in which to fill in the plates. This is not a fancy picture Years ago I did it many times for a first-class firm, and I believe many do it still The latest idea is to use a reflex camera which has its advantages but, on the whole, I prefer a stand camera, which is not only more- adaptable as regards rise, swings, and the use of different lenses, but impresses the sitters with the idea that the work is being done properly and that they are not being "mapped" with a port able camera, tike Cousin Jim uses. Personally, I prefer a parallel -bellows camera for whole-plates, fitted with a 12-inch / 5 6 lens. I also carry a Dallmeyer 2B portrait lens, which is useful for children or in very badly lighted rooms. The shutters Packard Ideal or a Gaerry doable flap is fined inside the camera. Usually six slides are carried, filled with such sued plates at the order calls for. It is, how- a good plan to have a couple of whole-plates in one of the slides, in case there is not sufficient room to get in the desired amount of too figure, although the order may be for cabinets only. The 2B, however, will give a three-quarter figure in a small room. The stand is an ordinary three-fold tripod, but rather heavy and provided with the folding wooden base so often described. This latter is a very useful addition, as not only are the feelings of the housewife relieved when she was that it is not proposed to stick spikes into her rugs and pets but it permits of the camera being moved by sliding, instead of lifting, that saving much time and labour.
Sometimes it is desirable to carry a small background, beet a double-sided one of light and very dark grey, about 5 ft by 4 ft upon two light rollers; it does not weigh much and is easily carried. A piece of calico to serve as a reflector is also useful, but if more impediments are not objected to, one of the Kodak portable reflectors may be substituted with advantage.
Now we come to the moat important part of the business the placing and lighting of the sitter. In rooms which are lighted by only one window the choice of position is limited, unless the window is unusually large and high. With small windows it is necessary to place the titter close to the windows to ensure the light falling at the proper angle, which should be as nearly as possible the orthodox forty-five degrees. It is surprising now nearly studio lighting may be approximated to it this be done. One important preliminary is to cover the lower part of the light with opaque material, and if the out side light to vary strong, the upper part should be covered with a translucent fabric, nainsook for choice. Bolter muslin is sometimes used, bat it to too open in texture for direct sun-light. In practice I find it convenient to sew the two pieces a stuff together, the upper half being a piece of nainsook about 4 ft wide and 5 ft. to 6 ft. long, and the lower black or dark green sateen, the same width, and about 4 ft long ; this allows for windows which go down to the floor. This curtain is sassily fixed in position with three or four push pins, any surplus length at the top being closely folded or rolled and pinned through. In a dull light the white half may be folded down behind the dark part and the clear glass used.
As the conditions do not vary greatly in this class of work, the inexperienced photographer will do well to make a few exposures in an ordinary room at home and note upon the prints the positions in which the camera and sitter were placed the different effete; some will probably be good and more probably some will be bad, and. by selecting the more successful ones, he will find oat the best way of working. For ordinary three-quarter lighting the sitter most be placed about 2 ft. back from the edge of the window and about 3 ft. into the room. This distance will vary with the height of the window; if the room be very lofty; the sitter may come further in and still be well lighted. Only in very lofty rooms should fall lengths be attempted, otherwise the angle at which the light strikes the head is too small and the shadows of the features are flattened and the eyes filled with light. In some large houses, where the windows are 12 to 14 ft. in height, studio effects are easily got. For plain lighting the camera should be kept as near to the window side of the room as possible, but for other effects it may be placed in many other positions. The so-called Rembrandt lighting is easily got in an ordinary room, more easily than in most studios. In this style the wall at one-aide of the (window carries the background. Here the dark grey pound will be very useful; the sitter looks straight across the light, which should give a broad line of light down the profile. By turning the head, a little light may be allowed to fall on the cheek-bone, but this is a matter of taste. The shadow aide of the face which is turned to the lens should be lighted up by the reflector, which must be near the camera; in fact, it is sometimes an advantage to cut a hole in the reflector for the lens to look through.
There are great possibilities in the use of an ordinary looking-glass, especially in small rooms, and when photographing invalids in bad, as by its aid the sitter may turn his face towards the window and still present the- lighted side of it to the camera. In the very difficult case of a sitter in bed in a small room, the mirror may be so placed as to enable the photographer to work through the doorway. It should be remembered, as far as the working distance is concerned, that this is made up of the distance from sitter to mirror, plus the distance from lens to mirror, so that in a room where it to only possible to get 3 ft. between lens and sitter by the use of the mirror, the working distance may be doable or more. It must not be forgotten that negatives so taken are laterally inverted that is to say, that if printed in the ordinary way the hair will be parted on the wrong aide; in fart, the image will be as seen in the mirror. To overcome this the prints may be made in single transfer carbon in Kodak transfer type bromide paper, or they may be printed in the enlarger with the glass side to the lens, or if portrait films be used, simply by printing from the back Some objections to the use of the mirror may be raised upon the ground that there is the possibility of getting doable outline of the image, and this, of course would occur if the mirror and lens axis were at an angle of say, 45 deg. with each other; but when the lens and mirror are at right angles to each other there to no danger of this defect appearing.
The scope of home portraiture may be greatly extended by the use of artificial light, and I look forward to the time when the nitrogen filled or half-watt lamps will hare entirely displaced the ordinary vacuum ( f) type. We shall then be able to work where we like in the room and get fireside and card table groups as easily as in the studio. Meanwhile we must rely upon magnesium, either in the form of the flash, or, as 1 prefer to use it for this class of work, in ribbon. Two feet of ribbon cut into four lengths and twisted into a torch give a light equal to an arc-lamp, and, if burned behind a diffuser leave nothing to be desired in the way of lighting. There is no explosion, as with the mixed powders; no snowstorm, as when the pure metal powder is used; the flame is small, and there is no risk to draperies, the only precaution necessary being the provision of an old tea, tray or mat to catch any burning ash which may drop from the torch. I always carry a roll of magnesium ribbon in my camera case with a bit of sandpaper to brighten it with and a wooden clip to hold it while burning. Do not try to light oxidised ribbon; it is a slow job; brighten it with the sandpaper and then it light- quickly and burns evenly.

Training The Retoucher

The incompetence of a large proportion of retouches is a, fact which many photographers know too well. Thin deplorable state of things is chiefly doe, I consider, to the sloppy methods of instructing that are in vogue in the profession. Much valuable tins U waited in having to inspect the work of such assistants before it goes to the next department, whereas it ought to be expected of them to be competent enough to pass it along through all departments until final inspection. I advocate the giving of an abort allotted time and direct personal attention for a few days as a bogs tune-saver in the long run, and as an aid to high quality.
The majority of assistants do not know what retouching exactly should be. Generally speaking their knowledge does not go beyond the idea that they must aim at a decent stipple. What should be done, or -what to do for the greatest improved effect with the least possible amount of labour, and how it affects the next department ('i.e., the enlarging and "finishing" artist) they lack knowledge of. In some cases masters lack knowledge of art principles and their application. Retouching taught without these, in my opinion, is absolutely valueless. Supposing the method usually adopted in training pupil for retouching was applied in the darkroom or printing-room, disaster would sooner or later happen to a batch of work or soon tell its tale by the work not proving permanent. Naturally the first thing one does in these rooms is to explain the reasons for doing certain things.
Some sort of guidance in theory ought to be in vogue among all photographers who have the profession at heart beyond that of the mere making of money. The pupil wants a thorough knowledge of what is required in the branch he is being instructed in. One would not look at the end of a pencil to draw a straight line; otherwise there would be no means to the end in getting that line straight. The mind judges where that line should be to be straight and the brain directs the hand accordingly. It cannot be said that the hand directs the pencil to make the line straight; if the pencil is held correctly the mind draws the straight line. I take this principle as illustrative of my method of instruction for retouching. A negative cannot be retouched unless the whole affect required is in one's mind. How to hold the pencil is half the battle. I have noticed that retouches who hold their pencils at right angles to the negatives and the forefinger tightly in the shape of triangle are usually bad workers and their stipple is wormlike and has no symmetry. This is caused by their being unable in this manner to work the fingers freely, the guidance having to be done by the arm and wrist, making the arm an eccentric.
The correct style, and one which saves hours of labour for the finishing artist, is to hold the pencil very loosely between the thumb and first two fingers, and almost perpendicular, thug using; the side of the pencil point and obtaining any desired angle of movement above the wrist by the fingers (the little finger resting on the negative). Never mind how you get a stipple so long as you work to follow the lines of the muscles of face and texture of the skin of the sitter, not to smother the negative. Many so-called expert retouches (stipples) place a beautiful sheen of lead all over the face, whether it is old man, lady, or child; in reality, a lead wash, such as a painter employs as a ground-tint. It is an absolute waste of time, and the effect mechanical, causing many a master to employ two retouches where one would suffice, and giving an effect which is artistically and commercially valueless. Aim at altering defects only and improving the artistic value by the following course: Select your pupil and give half an hour's persona' instruction each day for a week, first getting the pupil to master the taking away of complexion blotches and spots. Aim at nothing else until the pupil can do these to match the surrounding ground without overlapping.
The next step is to instruct where the muscles are exaggerated by the necessary side-lighting of the studio. With a satisfactory stroke there should be no so-called stipple. Then get your pupil to look at the whole of the face and imagine the negative as a line drawing in the positive sense, considering exactly what lines would be drawn to represent the character of the person (dismiss the half-tones for the moment). Get the pupil into the habit of bearing in mind the curve of the main lines that represent the character, such as the shape of the nose, main lines of lips and eyes. Any small complementary shadows there are to these do not need retouching. The next to consider is the relation of the strong highlights to the imaginary line drawing, and in doing this treat all the half-tone lights as that of a thin wash of paint an artist would put over his drawing. They need no altering; only blending into the main lines (i.e., massed shadows). The direct alteration of any half-tone or massed shadow representing the line of the facial muscle is fatal in retouching. These are the chief points to consider for artistic retouching. Any other work such as squaring noses and altering nose shadows are not necessary, if the face is properly lighted. All that is needed is the minimum work and the maximum result, which is only obtained by keeping the whole face in mind all the time. Try this method on your next pupil as against the old style of practice-practice without aim and you will be surprised at the result and time saved.


The Longevity Of Photographic Prints In Relation To Record And Survey Work.

A recent dictum of the Camera Club indirectly revives the question of the permanence of different printing processes to be used as records by photographic survey and record societies. Perhaps the most widely understood meaning of the word "permanent," applied to everyday things, appertains to inalterability, but in photographic circles when questions arise as to tine relative permanence of different printing processes their respective "durability" is generally meant and as so understood. Degrees of (.inalterability is rather a contradiction in terms, whilst durability may widely vary. To put the matter bluntly, if any printing process will afford lasting results for, say, a dozen, or so years and upwards, it is generally considered to be permanent in the restricted sense alluded to. But the matter is on another footing when, photographs are to serve as records for posterity, for here it is not enough that they should last for fifty or even a hundred years, but a life is reasonably demanded limited only by the holding together of the picture supports. By general consensus of opinion, two commercial printing processes only, or variants of them, fulfill this condition. The life of silver prints at the best is one of conjecture, which the lapse of time only can settle, and many are known to be more or less evanescent. In the case of photographs utilized purely as records their useful existence is longer than for most other purposes: if discolored or partially faded, so long as all details are preserved, they serve their purpose. On the other hand, when once deterioration has begun it often proceeds apace.
Though all are agreed that complete fixation and thorough washing are essential elements in the stability of silver prints, yet it cannot be said that deterioration can only be ascribed to these operations being ecamped, and there may be operative causes which are quite unsuspected. Printers of the old albumenized paper have narrated how prints known to be hurriedly fixed and washed have sometimes long outlasted those which had received orthodox treatment. In past days albumenized prints appear to have been over-washed, as in addition to prolonged changes by hand they were frequently left to soak all night. Impure air, damp, impurities in the mount or mountant, or a mountant tending to turn acid or are all known factors tending to alteration and fading Even with one brand of paper puzzling differences he durability of prints arise, one worker recording rapid fading, or other troubles, whilst another experiences he opposite. Inquiries often fail to reveal any variation in procedure to account for such difference, which in some irrational way seems to be connected with the ''personal equation" which looms largely in other directions.
In daylight silver-printing processes the image may be to consist of something in the nature of a stain, whilst with bromide prints we have reduced silver in a fine state of division in gelatine, and the general opinion is that them are the most stable of all silver prints. The life of a dry-plate bears on the permanency of bromide prints, though we should expect the former to outlast the latter owing to the silver and gelatine being present in greater degree, and also to the fact that there is no paper to retain residual traces of hypo. Comparatively few old dry-plate negatives show unimpaired condition, but at Greenwich Royal Observatory there is no indication of fading in any dry-plate negatives of stars, although many date back more than twenty years. Doubtless scrupulous care was exercised in fixing and washing and none have been indemnified or even reduced.
Whilst nobody can place a limit on the life of a carefully made bromide print, which may last many a long year, yet the official pronouncement of the Camera Club that "a well-made, thoroughly fixed and washed bromide print is probably as permanent as a print in any other process" cannot be justified. The probabilities are against this conclusion, and at variance with the opinion of recognized authorities, and with the views of the great majority of photographers. In essence, the assertion is equivalent to saying that finely divided silver, vulnerable to many adverse influences, is as stable a substance as, say, lamp- black, or platinum black, both regarded as unalterable trader every atmospheric condition, and respectively employed in the carbon and platinum processes. Having regard to the support and to the fact that the platinum image is in actual contact with the fibred of the paper, mercenarily of the highest grade, a platinum print may present an advantage over % carbon when a long-distant future is concerned, but both can fairly be bracketed together as truly permanent photographic printing images. Neither, of course, exists commercially on the strength of feature, but on the distinctive qualities associated with them. The extraordinary resisting properties of platino- type prints were illustrated some yean ago, when a number remained at the bottom of the sea for some months in a sunken warship and were eventually salved none the worse for the adventure. Subsequently shown at the Brussels
Exhibition, they perished by fire. Although the image of a carbon print is not in contact with the fibred of the paper, the pigment it locked in insoluble gelatine, known to be most durable in Ha normal state, and presumably more so when tanned by the action of light. As to the danger of peeling, sometimes alleged to exist, all that can be is that this is of the rarest occurrence, and when it does take place may usually be traced to the under-soaking of the transfer paper, or over-hardening of the prints by chrome alum or similar chemical, or to undue baste in drying Preference, naturally, will be given to those tissues which contain carbon pigment, however durable other pigments utilized may be.
If the opinion of those responsible for the recent utterance of the Camera Club is based on the undoubted fact that many bromide prints made years ago show not the slightest signs of alteration, this proves that the prints are long-lived, but affords no information as to their ultimate life. We have in our possession a framed salver print (apparently albumen) of French origin purchased over sixty years ago, made long prior to the introduction of bromide papers, and only during the last few years has it shown signs of deterioration, though continuously exposed to daylight, and occasionally hung on walls none too dry. Possibly in another twenty years or less the picture may have disappeared.
Granted that carbons and platinotypes are the processes for record work, which nearly all secretaries of photographic record societies fully recognize, yet the unfortunate fact remains that if these were insisted upon few prints would be received, as the majority of amateurs print in neither process. So such societies are practically forced to accept silver prints, and with no guarantee even that they have been thoroughly fixed and washed. Possibly a dry silver print hermetically sealed and kept in the dark might last almost indefinitely, but this is outside the region of practicability. However stored for access, it is impossible to prevent a limited circulation of air and of any impurities in it over the prints owing to barometrical changes. Dry-mounting on pure paper, and a coat of good varnish applied to the surface, should materially help towards longevity. In the case of subjects obviously valuable as records, the loan of the negatives might be sought to enable permanent prints to be obtained, but unfortunately funds are often not available for the purpose. We feel sure carbon or platino type printing concerns would charge on the lowest possible basis, and on inquiry have received from two well-known firms an unofficial intimation to this effect.
There appears to be no specific authority conferred on any local authority to enable a small grant to be made for such a worthy object. But when the record society becomes part of the public free libraries (as in most cases should be the case for convenient reference) the general powers of expenditure are available. These are by no means great under the existing rate, which leaves but little margin for the purchase of necessary books, to say nothing of other desirable acquisitions. Many towns, however, have proposed an advance in the rate to 3d, and if than materializes prospects will be brighter for the societies associated with the libraries, if not for the ratepayer.
We wish all good-luck to the scheme of the Camera Club, and commend our observations to its attention, and in doing so a gentle reminder may be given to readers every where not to forget their local survey and record in the approaching season. Upon the executive, as a rule, falls the major part of the work, cheerfully undertaken and with no hope of being personally thanked by posterity, but we would urge a large measure of contribution by the general body of photographers.