Wednesday, September 17, 2008

The Postcard Lantern As An Aid To Copying And Enlarging.

A postcard lantern or its equivalent, for a simple substitute is quite easily devised, will often prove of use to the photographer for special work. It may be of great assistance, for example, when one desires to make a copy or an enlarged negative from a print, while at the same time introducing modifications, or blocking out unwanted portions.
Direct enlarging with a postcard lantern is not new, having in fact been suggested by A. E. Swoyer, in the "American Annual of Photography" for 1914. That writer, however, regarded the projected image as an end, whereas in the present article it is simply a means to an end or intermediate stage, while the method adopted is entirely distinct.
It will be seen, by reference to fig. 1, that the postcard lantern consists of a body, A, in the front of which is fitted the objective, B, while at the back is a hinged door, C, with grooves to hold the print, or sometimes a sliding carrier. A good source of illumination is two 30 c. p. or SO c. p. metal filament bulbs, D and E. The inside of the body U whitened, and it will be noted that the ides nearest the lamps are at such an angle as to reflect the light on the print. Two small interposed screens, or some similar arrangement, prevent direct rays reaching the lens. Cowled chimneys are usually fitted over the lamps, and due provision made for ventilation.

Postcard latern The most important item is the lens, which should be of fairly large aperture, owing to the loss of light by reflection, and should have a flat field. Cheap postcard lanterns often have objectives with so round a field that the holder has to be curved to get uniform definition. Such a lens is, of course, quite unsuitable for copying or enlarging. Many of these objectives are not even achromatic, and, on the whole, a proper photographic lens is Bach to be preferred, even to the best of them. The lens must be capable of covering a plate at least as large as the print to be projected and the lantern should have sufficient focal adjustment or extension to render a fairly small picture possible when required.
There will be needed, in addition to the lantern, an easel of the type shown in fig. 2. This consists of a frame, A, containing a
Postcard latern type
wheat of plain glaze, B, and supported in a vertical position by a firm base and struts. To the frame A, is hinged a smaller frame, C, which, when closed and secured by a turn button, presses on the glass.
The print to be copied is inserted at the back of the lantern, and focused sharply to the desired size, on a sheet of tracing paper stretched taut between the two frames on the easel; or, if preferred, a piece of finely ground glass may be placed in the frame, A, instead of a plain piece, and the tracing paper dispensed with. If the second coarse is adopted, the ground aids) of the glass should be at the back of the easel.
The worker, standing or sitting behind the easel, now has it is power to modify the projected image considerably, by of pencil or stomp work on the ground glass or tracing and even the brash may be employed advantageously in cases. Since the image is a positive, there is no difficulty in exactly how the final result will appear. Cars, of course, have to be taken that the work matches the colour of the image.
The next step is to make a negative from the modified image, by setting up a camera, F (fig. 1), behind, and central to the easel, O, without moving or interfering with the lantern. Thus, the copy negative will contain all the introduced work as well as the essential characteristics of the original, and the result if all is well done, will be a considerable improvement. The negative may obviously be any required size, though preferably it should be smaller than the projected image, as this reduces the likelihood of grain showing.
It will be seen that this method affords a handy way of inserting a black background, by painting round the projected image with any suitable opaque; or of introducing accessories on an originally plain tight background; copying joined up prints an I combinations; adding skies to landscapes; and many other purposes.
One may also make enlarged modified negatives direct from prints, by working-op the projected image, as before described and then, having find covered the objective, placing a large plate in the frame behind the grand glass or tracing paper, the exposure being then given by uncovering the objective for an estimated time. In this case, the postcard lantern must evidently be light-trapped properly, which is not so necessary for copying with a camera; while a little extra space mast be left in the rebate of the easel frame to allow the insertion of the plate. Enlarging in this way softens the definition a little, and thus lends itself to artistic elects. There may also be an alight grain, bat with proper cars this should not be objectionable. Backed plates should invariably be used.
Since metal-filament lamps do not give out much heat, it in traits feasible, with an intelligent study of size and ventilation, to hint a simple wooden, lantern of the kind under discussion; or, with but a little adaptation, one or other of the various contrivances for ^Urging by reflected light without a condenser may be pressed into service.
To anticipate difficulties which may, perhaps, perplex some who are unfamiliar with postcard lanterns, it should be stated that the projected image is always laterally reversed. Viewed from the rear of the easel, however, there is no inversion, when explains why copying is done from the back, that also I fortunately the most convenient position.

Monday, September 15, 2008



In connection with the exhibition by members to be held at the Art Gallery, Black pool, on May 27, 1919, the committee desire that specimens submitted should be sent uncounted and not framed. The response from members is very satisfactory, but there is ample room for several more photographs. Entries will be in time if received by the hon. secretary up to Monday, April 28.


The next ordinary meeting will be held on Wednesday, April 23, at 7 p.m., at King's College Bacteriological Laboratories, 62, Chandos Street, W.C., when F. Martin Duncan, F.R.M.S., F.R.P.S., will lecture on "The Preservation and Preparation of Microscopic Objects for Photomicrography." Visitors are invited and cards of invitation may be obtained on application to the Hon. Sec., J. G. Bradbury, 1, Hogarth Hill, Finchley Road, Hendon, and N. W. A.


Describing the research now being undertaken by Professor H. B. Dixon in petrol substitutes, the "Times" mentions that an exceedingly interesting and ingenious device used by him is a camera of recording the "spread of the flame" in an explosion. It will take a hundred yards of film photograph a second, and as the film moves at right-angles to the motion of the flame and the lens reduces the image to one-twelfth of the original, it follows that the camera provides a means of analyzing a flame traveling at velocities up to 3,000 yards a second. This is an apparatus which Professor Dixon had perfected before undertaking the present investigations.


The death is announced of Madame Lallie Charles, for many years a well-known society photographer, having her studio and residence in the exclusive Mayfair thoroughfare of Curzon Street. There she conducted a business without any of the outdoor advertisement, in the shape of showcase or window, which evens the photographers of Bond Street, cannot bring them to forgo. Her customers were almost without exception women, and we believe her connection included not only a goodly proportion of London Society, but people of wealth and standing in South America. Some few years ago Madame Charles was the unsuccessful defendant in the lawsuit arising from the building of her Curzon Street studio, as the result of which, and also, so it is stated, of the war upon her business, she became financially embarrassed.


We are extremely sorry to have news from New York of the death of Mr. Alfred S. Corey, technical editor of the "Motion Picture News." Mr. Corey was an enthusiastic student of progress in the fields of optics, colour photography and colour cinematography, and during the last few years we have owed to him the opportunity of publishing descriptions of technical advances, particularly in colour cinematography, in the United States which had come under his personal notice. His interest in the technical side of optics and photography was shown by the very valuable resumes of the literature of these subjects which he offered to readers of his paper. It was technical information of a kind which, we may guess, found exceedingly few readers in the American cinematograph industry. Mr. Corey was a large buyer of books from England, and we are asked to remind any booksellers or publishers before whom this notice may come that his affairs are in the hands of Mr. Allison, of Allison and Haddaway, 235, Fifth Avenue, New York, who is taking steps to discharge any of his liabilities.



Novelist and home-made apparatus were to the fore last week and despite a gloomy forecast by the secretary, the evening proved complete success. The most welcome novelty, possibly indirectly due to the splendid action of the Liverpool duckers consisted of the contents of a bottle labelled "whisky." which, divided amongst thirty to forty members, was sufficient to alleviate the feeling of resentment born of recent privations.
Mr. F. Ackroyd showed a Bunsen burner converted into gas fire-lighter. This is connected to the gas supply with a length of the familiar lexis’s metallic tubing with rubber connectors. Rubber gradually perishes on exposure to light and air and if the connectors are covered with adhesive black compounded tape (as used for insulating electrical joins) their life will be greatly prolonged. The same idea had occurred to other member, and they congratulated Mr. Ackroyd on his cleverness. Mr. Harpur pointed out that this flexible tubing frequently leaks, which can be prevented by winding round the tape throughout its length without any material lens in flexibility. "Hunt's tape" was alluded to as bring excellent. Mr. Ackroyd next (bowed a beer-warmer, which be said served the purpose of making tea in office hours. This was believed, as be is the antithesis of the beer warmer type. He remarked that the utensil bad a large hole in the bottom, yet had never leaked. Several references being made to "George Washing ton." are explained that as the bole in the metal gradually formed it lied up with a calcareous deposit. He then passed round the beer warmer, and those who bandied it noticed with considerable dissatisfaction a loose carbonaceous deposit on its outer wall. At this point Dr. Knott mistaking the office boy for a towel, a disturbance arose.
The Rev. Le Warne was the next star turn, and it can be said with esurience if be is as successful in converting erring humanity to better things as he is in converting apparatus to weird uses he must be a sky pilot of pristine quality. A handy retouching desk was shown improvised oat of studio dark-slide, and, like an ex-sinner, capable of backsliding at abort notice. The President. Mr. J. Keane then demonstrated the "Flying Corps" developing tank, a well designed and solidly contracted apparatus. It permits of the insertion of a thermometer into the developer without admission of light, a really valuable feature. Dr. F. Knott produced several unbreakable glass measures, which were severely tested by members and came through unscathed. Being composed of glass under tension when they do go only fine dust remains. To those whose halite is engendering feeling of uncertainty regarding the position and number of external objects, they should powerfully appeal.
Mr. V. Jobbing showed a home-made camera "with all projections flush with the front," a feature believed to be unique; also a folding walking-stick tripod. This and the camera illustrated skill in design and craftsmanship of the highest order. The shutter lad its release placed in front and therefore was actuated by pressure towards the body, an ideal way for minimizing any tendency to shake at the moment of exposure. Many others materially contributed to the interest of the evening.


The seventh meeting of the session took place on Monday, April 7, Mr. Young in the chair. A letter was read from Mr. Massie, hon. secretary of the Edinburgh Photographic Society, intimating that the proposed to invite the 1990 Scottish Salon to Edinburgh had been discarded owing to the unsettled conditions. He thanked the society for the interest which the members had taken in the matter.
Mr. Young then read a letter from Mr. Sutherland, secretary of the Edinburgh College of Art. Intimating that the society’s request for this formation of a retouching class had now been granted, on condition that Mr. Young should undertake the tuition personally. This Mr. Young intimated his willingness to do. The class would start in the autumn, and would be held twice weekly, from seven to nine in this evening. Mr. Campbell Harper expressed the society's indebtedness to the president for the manner in which he had pulled this matter through.
Mr. Young then brought up the question of the apprentice. He said that it was now time for the society to formulate a scheme of some definite nature. Letter after letter was being published in the "British Journal" on this question, and, in fact, since he had mentioned the theme in his October address, hardly a week had passed without some contribution of this nature. The P. P.A. merely groped around the subject. The first thing which the photographer could do for his assistant Mr. Young continued, was to see that he received a proper training, and the beginning of that was an apprenticeship. We lived in different times, and the old conditions no longer held good; and we must have some definite schema of modified apprenticeship. In two years' time, he pointed out, every assistant under eighteen yean of age would be compelled to attend classes during business hours, and the newly- arranged retouching class would then become a day class. He added that he would be glad to hear the views of the members on the object, and suggested that a committee be appointed to formulate a scheme.
Mr. Johnston pointed out that the public opinion of photography as a profession was anything but a high one, and hence the difficulty of obtaining boys suitable for apprentices Mr. Young thought that classes of various kinds would greatly help to alter this situation. Mr. Rush brook felt that this was a matter for all the photographers in Britain. It was pointed out, however, that the onus of making a start would devolve on some small body, and, a lead once given, the idea would spread. The great difficulty which all photographers experienced in giving an apprentice a good know-ledge of all the branches was discussed, and it was honed that by the growth in the number of technical sissies the master photographer would be relieved of much personal tuition. A committee, consisting of Messrs. Rush brook, Campbell Harper, and Johnston, was then appointed to consider the whole question and to make a report.
Mr. Johnston then made his report on behalf of the Exhibition Committee. He gave facts and figures regarding the New Gallery, Shandwirk Place. Three weeks would be necessary for the exhibition for the purposes of hanging, and the other two for the exhibition. The probable coat for this, including advertising, would be about 60. It was felt that it would be more dignified if the exhibition were not a competitive one, but a competitive class for assistants might be arranged. Mr. Young said that he was anxious to see this exhibition representative of all classes of photography. It was decided to bring the matter up for further discussion.
A scheme of co-operative advertising was then placed before the members, and the details explained. Some nine firms have so far expressed their willingness to enter into this scheme, which promises to be of great benefit to the profession in Edinburgh.


At the annual general meeting on Monday, April 7, good progress was reported. The president, Mr. W. F. Slater, F.R.P.S., who has worked o hard for the benefit of the society for the past two years, it well-known figure in photographic circles, and it is with some considerable regret that the rules of the society only permit his occupying that position for the above-mentioned period. As demonstrator and lecturer his services have been much appreciated, and the members present expressed their appreciation. The secretary reported a very successful year's working, with an increase of 33 per cent, in membership. The hon. treasurer reported that the year's working showed a profit, which is gratifying, as the year had been commenced with a balance-sheet showing a slight loss.
The following officers were elected.-President, W. B. Ash mole; hon. secretary, Ernest W. Brooks; hon. treasurer, W. F. Slater, F.R.P.S., F.R.G.S.; hon. curator and librarian, L. J. Blake; hon. portfolio secretary, E. C. Perry; hon. excursion secretary, J. Pick-well; hon. lanterns, C. H. Manger; committee Messrs. Gideon Clark, H. Creighton Beckett. E. R. Bull, C. H. Oak den, Horace Wright. H. Richards, W. H. Howard, W. McEwen, E. W. Taylor, W. E. White, Arnold J. Burt, and E. Gorfin. The new syllabus is now ready, new members are required, and professional workers are invited to join, as this society already includes a good few members of the trade. A copy of the Handbook will be sent free upon application to E. W. Brooks, 4, Ferndale Road, S.W.4. The next meeting at the Central Library is fixed for 7.30 p.m., Wednesday, April 23, when Messrs. Kerotype, Limited, are giving a demonstration of their Kerotype paper.

Sunday, September 14, 2008



These specifications are obtainable, price 6d each t post free, from the Patent Office, 25, Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, London, W. C.
The dale in brackets is that of application in this country; or abroad, in the case of patents granted under the International Contention.


No. 123,892 (May 6, 1918). The invention consists in a lantern-slide, used for announcements, mounted so that it can be raised or lowered vertically in the cinematograph lantern stage. It is raised by a spring drum and lowered by pulling it down by hand. Robert George Elder, of 16, War ten Terrace, Heaton, Newcastle-on-Tyne.


No. 123,842 (March 12, 1918). The invention consists in a film having
words, or the letters thereof, progressively impressed near to the mouths of figures as a means of indicating a supposed dialogue. The words may be impressed photographically or from metal type. Samuel Albert Flower, 17, Newnham Road, Wood Green, London, N.


No. 113,156 (February 20, 1917). Two rectangular pieces of glass are selected of exactly the same size. On to one of the pieces of glass are placed three or more single pictures cut from waste cinematograph film. The film pictures, which are placed longitudinally on the glass and a little distance apart, are secured to the glass by narrow strips of black adhesive paper passed across their ends. The second piece of glass is then placed on the top of the pictures and the frame is bound securely together by strips of black gummed paper or tape, or other adhesive material, placed round the four edges.
The advantage claimed for the invention is that the slide thus formed is greatly superior to the present one, as the pictures used will be cuttings from the best quality films, showing excellent photography. Frederick Winton Perkins, 12, Norton Road, Letch worth Hertz.


No. 113,919 (September 19, 1917). The invention has for its object certain improvements in roll films whereby films of one size may be employed in different-sized cameras. In roll-film cameras it is usual to provide markings upon the backing paper for the film, such markings being spaced apart a distance equal to the length of film necessary for each exposure in a camera of a particular size, and showing the number of exposures that have been made. As distinguished from the foregoing, in accordance with the invention the backing for the film is marked in such a manner that a single spool of film of any particular width can be used in any camera made to take films of that width. The divisions on the backing paper are units and sub-divisions of units of length, and enable the user to ascertain the actual length of film used instead of the number of exposures of a predetermined size. The divisions are consecutively numbered and are of known dimensions, 1 centimeter for example. The half centimeter, quarter centimeter, or even smaller dimensions may also be indicated, but not necessarily identified.
The user of such a roll of film would be provided with a table giving names of various cameras in which the spool could be used, and giving against each camera the numbers which should appear at the usual opening or window in the back of the camera, as the successive exposures are made, allowance being made so that there is a division between the exposed portions, and overlapping of the photographs is avoided. Herbert Nimmo. 44, Kirby Street, Hatton Garden, London, E.C.I.


No. 11,933 (June 4, 1917). A sheet of paper or like flexible material previously sensitized in any known manner is coated with paint or washes of Venetian red, chrome yellow, or other suitable preparation which is impervious to light and is easily removable by washing or other similar process. The opaque coating forms protection to the sensitized surface and admits of the paper being handled openly, dispensing with the use of light-tight envelopes and the like, the treated paper being made up in single sheets or in books, packets or blocks containing the desired number of sheets.
For producing a print the prepared sheet or two or more superimposed sheets is supported behind the object to be radiographer, the print being thus taken directly on the paper or a like print on each of the superimposed papers or sheets, which is subsequently washed to remove the opaque coating and develop the print or prints.
By means of the invention, X-ray photographs can be produced with the utmost rapidity, whereby immediate inspection of the finished print is obtainable, this in many cases being of considerable value. George William Kilmer Crosland, New North Road, Huddersfield, and Thomas Pearson Kilmer Crosland, Fitzwilliam Street, Huddersfield.



An interesting demonstration of the qualities of carbon and Ozo-brome printing is now offered in the exhibition of photographs by these printing which is being held at the Camera Club, 17, John Street, Adelphi, London, W C. The prints are provided "by the Autotype Company, which now, as we gather from a circular, is the manufacturer and purveyor of materials for the Ozo-brome process. A very great range of photographic- effects shows the corresponding capacity of the carbon process to render in the fullest way the quality in negatives of most diverse subjects. Coming away from the rooms of the Camera Club, one mentally contrasts the beautifully romantic effects in a low key, such as many of these of Mr. Alex. Keighley, or to select an equally hue example, the "Stygian Shore" (No. 22) of Mr. Summons as we say, one contrasts these prints with the high-key studies of translucent ice which are shown by toe Australasian Antarctic expedition. Nothing, perhaps, could better exhibitions versatility of the carbon process, not only its capacity for tone rendering, but equally its choice of color appropriate to the subject. The exhibition contains some 4 portraiture by Craig Annan, Malcolm Abuthnot, and the Earl of Carparvon. The Ozo-brome process is represented by only a few examples, bat these show very charming landscape work by its inventor, Mr. Thomas Manly. The exhibition remains open from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. until April 30, and on April 24 a demonstration of carbon printing will be given at 8 p.m. by Mr. A. C. Braham. Tickets of admission to this fixture may be obtained on application to the Secretary of the club, or to the Autotype Company. 74. New Oxford Street. London, W. C. I.


An exhibition of photographs, presented under the title "War in the Air." by the Royal Air Force is now being held at the Grafton Galleries. New Bond Street, London, W. In interest and in the photographic quality of the coloured enlargements it is certainly the finest of the war photographs exhibitions which have been held. Who ever is responsible for "potting on" the exhibition it is evidently someone with a keen sense of the kind of subject which will interest the public. There must have been an immense amount of spade work done in making the selection from the enormous made of photography accumulated by the R.A.F. Here, however, we see for the fist time some of the achievements which have brought abort Great Britain's superiority in the air. Perhaps the chief of these, of which a number of photographs are to be found in different parts of the exhibition, is the now famous "hush" ship the "Furious." with its immense upper deck of size to receive a squadron of aero planes and still find roam for an airship or as. One of the photographs shows the operation of the tackle employed in raising a machine from it’s under deck hangar. There are some, striking pictures of the operations of the R.A.F. in Palestine in the shape of prints showing Turkish troops scattering in the hopeless attempt to escape the British airmen's bombs. Some photographs taken obliquely from the air of such well known places as Edinburgh and Trafalgar Square show the great usefulness of each photography for topographical purposes. A note in the catalogue mentions that the enlargements and their coloring again owe their quality to Means. Raines and Co., of Ealing. The exhibition remains open until the end of May, from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on week-days and 2.30 to 5JO on Sundays. The charge for admission is one shilling, the proceeds going to various charities connected with the